Featured Regenerative Medicine Research Papers
A Perivascular Origin for Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Multiple Human Organs
Cell Stem Cell : Volume 3, Issue 3, 11 September 2008, Pages 301–313
SummaryAll MSCs Are Pericytes?
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the archetypal multipotent progenitor cells derived in cultures of developed organs, are of unknown identity and native distribution. We have prospectively identified perivascular cells, principally pericytes, in multiple human organs including skeletal muscle, pancreas, adipose tissue, and placenta, on CD146, NG2, and PDGF-Rβ expression and absence of hematopoietic, endothelial, and myogenic cell markers. Perivascular cells purified from skeletal muscle or nonmuscle tissues were myogenic in culture and in vivo. Irrespective of their tissue origin, long-term cultured perivascular cells retained myogenicity; exhibited at the clonal level osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic potentials; expressed MSC markers; and migrated in a culture model of chemotaxis. Expression of MSC markers was also detected at the surface of native, noncultured perivascular cells. Thus, blood vessel walls harbor a reserve of progenitor cells that may be integral to the origin of the elusive MSCs and other related adult stem cells.
Cell Stem Cell: Volume 3, Issue 3, 11 September 2008, Pages 229–230
SummaryRegenerative Treatments to Enhance Orthopedic Surgical Outcome
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Crisan et al. (2008) document a subpopulation of human perivascular cells that express both pericyte and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers in situ. The isolated population can expand and is clonally multipotent in culture, establishing that MSCs found throughout fetal and adult tissues are members of the pericyte family of cells.
Physiatric Applications of Stem Cell Therapies in Regenerative Treatments of Musculoskeletal Conditions: Volume 7, Issue 4, Supplement, April 2015, Pages S41–S52
In orthopedic surgery there has been a never-ending quest to improve surgical outcome and the patient’s experience. Progression has been marked by the refinement of surgical techniques and instruments and later by enhanced diagnostic imaging capability, specifically magnetic resonance. Over time implant optimization was achieved, along with the development of innovative minimally invasive arthroscopic technical skills to leverage new versions of classic procedures and implants to improve short-term patient morbidity and initial, mid-term, and long-term patient outcomes. The use of regenerative and/or biological adjuncts to aid the healing process has followed in the drive for continual improvement, and major breakthroughs in basic science have significantly unraveled the mechanisms of key healing and regenerative pathways. A wide spectrum of primary and complementary regenerative treatments is becoming increasingly available, including blood-derived preparations, growth factors, bone marrow preparations, and stem cells. This is a new era in the application of biologically active material, and it is transforming clinical practice by providing effective supportive treatments either at the time of the index procedure or during the postoperative period. Regenerative treatments are currently in active use to enhance many areas of orthopedic surgery in an attempt to improve success and outcome. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the peer-reviewed evidence-based literature, highlighting the clinical outcomes in humans both with preclinical data and human clinical trials involving regenerative preparations within the areas of rotator cuff, meniscus, ligament, and articular cartilage surgical repair.